Table of Contents

Vanta's SOC 2 Guide

If your company stores customer data in the cloud and sells to other businesses, it’s likely you’ll be asked to prove your commitment to security via a SOC 2 report. This guide will walk you through the purpose of SOC 2 reports, when and why your organization might obtain one, and how best to prepare for doing so.

What is a SOC 2 report?

A SOC 2 report is often the primary document that security departments rely upon to assess a vendor’s security risk. Created by the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA), SOC 2 reports assure customers and other business partners that you have security guidelines in place and that you follow through on them. That might mean performing background checks on all employees, ensuring employee laptops are password-protected, or configuring your company’s Amazon Web Services (AWS) utilities in safe ways. No two SOC 2 reports look the same, because companies follow different security practices.

What a SOC 2 report covers

A SOC 2 report can include up to five categories, known as the Trust Service Criteria:

  • Security (also known as Common Criteria)
  • Availability
  • Confidentiality
  • Processing integrity
  • Privacy

All SOC 2 reports include the Security category; the others are optional. Many early-stage startups choose to start with the Security criteria only. Determine whether you should add additional categories by evaluating the commitments your customers expect; Vanta’s “SOC 2's Trust Service Categories and your business” guide may help.

The latest set of Trust Service Criteria, TSP 100 – 2017, includes 33 main requirements (“Trust Service Criteria and Points of Focus”) and 28 optional requirements. Each requirement should be broken down into 1-5 sub-requirements that describe security best practices.

The trick is figuring out how to fulfill the necessary requirements and commit to practices your company can sustain. Often, companies will hire an auditor or consultant to verify their practices uphold the SOC 2 criteria. In addition, the AICPA revises the rules every few years, introducing more complexity.

The Trust Service Criteria categories

All SOC 2 reports include the Security category

Your systems and the data you store are protected against unauthorized access and unauthorized disclosure.
Your information and systems are available for operation and use.
Confidential information is protected.
Processing integrity
System processing is complete, valid, accurate, timely, and authorized. Customer data remains correct throughout the course of data processing.
Personal information is collected, used, retained, disclosed, and disposed of in accordance with pre-stated policies.

Although the Confidentiality category applies to any sensitive information, the Privacy category applies only to personal information.

Type I versus Type II reports

You can choose from two types of reports—Type I or Type II. A Type I can be obtained faster, but a Type II report is more detailed and trusted. Customers and prospects generally prefer – and sometimes even require – a SOC 2 Type II report.

  • Type I reports give a snapshot of your company’s practice on a particular date. They describe the security rules (“controls”) your company follows but do not judge their effectiveness. You can think of them as conveying “hereare the appropriate security rules for our service.” Type I audits are often faster because they don’t test theeffectiveness of your security measures. They tend to carry less weight, especially with larger firms.
  • Type II reports describe and evaluate your company’s practices over time (typically 3-12 months.) You can think of them as conveying “here are the appropriate security rules for our service, and here’s how well they work.” They provide more assurance that your company is able to secure sensitive information.

For more information on Type I and Type II reports see Vanta’s “SOC 2 Type I or SOC 2 Type II?” guide.

Obtaining a SOC 2 report

It used to take months of effort and many steps to obtain a SOC 2 report in the traditional way:

  1. Develop a list of security controls, or rules, that your company plans to follow. While you can pay an outside expert to develop the list, it’s also possible for an employee to research and produce it on their own. The full list might include dozens or even hundreds of rules. You’ll need these roles to conform to AICPA guidance.
  2. Test yourself. Go through the list of rules and determine which the company currently meets and where it is falling short. Often, companies hire outside consultants to help with this step; their output is often a long task list.
  3. Implement new practices to fulfill your stated rules. This step can require buying new security tools (e.g. laptop management software to ensure laptop hard drives are encrypted), changing internal practices (e.g. instituting code review for all commits), and adopting new processes (e.g. performing background checks on new hires.)
  4. Go through a formal audit. During an audit, an auditor examines your list of rules and determines which you follow. (Hopefully you follow all of them!) To do so, they’re likely to ask questions of key employees, request screenshots of configuration dashboards, and even visit your office. You’ll need to produce a “paper trail” of evidence for each security control. Expect the process to take a few weeks of dedicated time and paperwork.
  5. Receive a report detailing your adherence to your security controls. The report can take weeks for the auditor to finalize and is generally valid for one year.

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Obtaining a SOC 2 report with Vanta

The process of obtaining a SOC 2 report with Vanta is faster, requires much less manual work, and proceeds with more certainty:

  1. Vanta builds a list of security controls tailored to your company. Vanta has seen hundreds of companies security practices and can match your company’s maturity with AICPA guidance.
  2. Vanta tests continuously to ensure security and compliance. Vanta verifies your company’s infrastructure, data, organizational, and physical security with integrations to your existing tools. This way, your engineers don't have to maintain spreadsheets, cron jobs, or internal checks.
  3. Vanta provides tools and guidance to fix weak spots. Vanta walks you through step by step instructions to fix gaps in your security, so everything is airtight before the audit.
  4. Have a short chat with your auditor. Instead of spending days or weeks walking an auditor through your systems and processes, your auditor may access Vanta data – what’s needed for an audit. We use an hour-long video call to cover anything outside of Vanta’s scope.
  5. Receive the report. Audit reports are often produced faster via Vanta because auditors need to complete less manual work. This means you’ll get your report faster.


Vanta's PCI Compliance Selection Guide

Determine Your PCI Compliance Level

If your organization processes, stores, or transmits cardholder data, you must comply with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS), a global mandate created by major credit card companies. Compliance is mandatory for any business that accepts credit card payments.

When establishing strategies for implementing and maintaining PCI compliance, your organization needs to understand what constitutes a Merchant or Service Provider, and whether a Self Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ) or Report on Compliance (ROC) is most applicable to your business.

Answer a few short questions and we'll help identify your compliance level:


Does your business offer services to customers who are interested in your level of PCI compliance?


Identify your PCI SAQ or ROC level

The PCI Security Standards Council has established the below criteria for Merchant and Service Provider validation. Use these descriptions to help determine the SAQ or ROC that best applies to your organization.

Good news! Vanta supports all of the following compliance levels:


Card not present Merchants (eCommerce or mail/telephone order) that have fully outsourced all cardholder data functions to PCI DSS compliant third party Service Providers, with no electronic storage, processing, or transmission of any cardholder data on the Merchant's system or premises.

Learn more about Vanta's SAQ A solution.


eCommerce Merchants who outsource all payment processing to PCI DSS validated third parties with a website(s) that doesn't directly receive cardholder data but can impact the payment transaction's security. No electronic storage, processing, or transmission of cardholder data on the Merchant's system or premises.

Learn more about Vanta's SAQ A-EP solution.

for service providers

All Service Providers defined by a payment brand as eligible to complete a SAQ.

Learn more about Vanta's SAQ D solution.

Level 1 for service providers

Entities that process over 6 million transactions annually (Merchant) or 300,000 transactions annually (Service Provider) must complete both an annual Report on Compliance (ROC) and Attestation of Compliance (AOC).

Learn more about Vanta's ROC solution.


In addition to speaking with our PCI DSS compliance experts, you can find information on understanding your PCI compliance level at the PCI Security Standards Council website or contacting your payment processing partner.

Download this checklist for easy reference


Related guides

Vanta's PCI Selection Guide


10 Steps to Effective Compliance Risk Management


Your Guide to eCommerce PCI Compliance

Vanta automates compliance starting with SOC 2
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